The average ocean depth, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, is 2.3 miles (3.7 kilometers), or about 12,100 feet. The Arctic Ocean occupies a roughly circular basin and covers an area of about 14,056,000 km2 (5,427,000 sq mi), almost the size of Antarctica. Details of a new depth map of the Arctic Ocean have been published in the Nature Journal Scientific Data. Although some sea creatures depend on light to live, others can do without it. Comparing of the September sea ice extent between simulation and SSM/I dataset, a consistent interannual variability is found between them. The overturning of this water plays a key role in global circulation and the moderation of climate. Petroleum and natural gas fields, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, sand and gravel aggregates, fish, seals and whales can all be found in abundance in the region. By Jeff Berardelli August 12, 2020 / 12:32 PM / CBS News Inactive … It is generally necessary that the upper 100–150 m (330–490 ft) of ocean water cools to the freezing point for sea ice to form. This lack of knowledge of what lay north of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures.  The deepest point is in the Eurasian Basin, at 5,450 m (17,881 ft). Secondary consumers in the Barents Sea, an Atlantic-influenced Arctic shelf sea, are mainly sub-Arctic species including herring, young cod, and capelin. On the east, it joins with the Atlantic Ocean. The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five oceans with an area of 5,427,000 square miles (14,056,000 sq km). The biology there is quite special. Countries bordering the Arctic Ocean are: Russia, Norway, Iceland, Greenland, … The South Atlantic's deepest part is located in the South Sandwich Trench at 27,651 feet. Because of its relative isolation from other oceans, the Arctic Ocean has a uniquely complex system of water flow. Much of the Arctic ice pack is covered in snow for about 10 months of the year. The Arctic Ocean is not only ranked the smallest in size (it's 10 times smaller than the Pacific Ocean), it's also the shallowest. The North Pole sits in the middle of the Arctic Ocean, on water that is almost always covered with ice. These variations in the Arctic all contribute to ice drift reaching its weakest point during the summer months. At the center of the debate is the 1,100-mile-long (1,800 kilometers) Lomonosov Ridge, a region at a depth of around 5,600 feet (1,700 m) that runs near the pole and bisects the Arctic Ocean. The temperature must reach −1.8 °C (28.8 °F) before freezing occurs. Scientific settlements were established on the drift ice and carried thousands of kilometers by ice floes..  Before the advent of modern icebreakers, ships sailing the Arctic Ocean risked being trapped or crushed by sea ice (although the Baychimo drifted through the Arctic Ocean untended for decades despite these hazards). The new research shows that between the 1990s and 2010, acidified waters expanded northward approximately 300 nautical miles from the Chukchi Sea slope off the coast of northwestern Alaska to just below the North Pole. This water is met by Greenland Sea Deep Water, which forms during the passage of winter storms. The total area of the Arctic ocean is around 5.4 million square miles. It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other bodies of water. Also, some of these areas listed in the table are located in the Atlantic Ocean. ", "Warmer Arctic with Less Ice Increases Storm Surge", "Arctic Russian Town Declares Polar Bear Invasion Emergency After 52 Wander In", "Watch: Polar bear in Russian archipelago peeks inside a house", "Polar bear invasion: Parents scared to send children to school in remote Russian archipelago", "A Storehouse of Greenhouse Gases Is Opening in Siberia", 400 million cubic meters of radioactive waste threaten the Arctic area, Plutonium in the Russian Arctic, or How We Learned to Love the Bomb, "A Top-Secret US Military Base Will Melt Out of the Greenland Ice Sheet", "Radioactive contamination from Fukushima found as far north as Alaska's Bering Strait", "5 nations sign declaration to protect Arctic 'donut hole' from unregulated fishing", Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (ArcticGRO), Daily Arctic Ocean Rawinsonde Data from Soviet Drifting Ice Stations (1954–1990), NOAA Near-realtime North Pole Weather Data, "Daily report of Arctic ice cover based on satellite data", Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Effects of global warming on marine mammals, List of countries where Arabic is an official language, Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests, Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine–oak forests, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arctic_Ocean&oldid=1004594438, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Canadian English, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 February 2021, at 11:21. The region does not experience much fluctuation throughout the year in terms of temperature, and temperatures during the long winter months remain very cold but stable. Water in the shelf region that begins as inflow from the Pacific passes through the narrow Bering Strait at an average rate of 0.8 Sverdrups and reaches the Chukchi Sea. The Arctic Ocean covers about 5,106,000 square miles averaging a depth of 3,953 feet. The average depth clocks in at just over 2 miles, or about 12,100 feet. This is one reason why the Arctic does not experience the extreme temperatures seen on the Antarctic continent. It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Iceland Sea, Norwegian Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water. The coastline is 45,390 kilometers (28,200 miles) long. The Arctic Ocean is contained in a polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges. The depth of the ocean at the North Pole is more than 4,000 meters (13,123 feet). A new study published today in Scientific Reports by University of Delaware researchers and colleagues reveals that 100 feet below the surface of the ocean is a critical depth … It has an average depth of 1,295 meters.  The first nautical transit of the north pole was made in 1958 by the submarine USS Nautilus, and the first surface nautical transit occurred in 1977 by the icebreaker NS Arktika. The Arctic Ocean's average depth, meanwhile, is much shallower — around 0.65 miles (1.04 kilometers), or 3,407 feet.  This process leaves dense, salty waters in the sea that sink over the continental shelf into the western Arctic Ocean and create a halocline.. Rifting then extended northward, opening the Arctic Ocean as mafic oceanic crust material erupted out of a branch of Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The composition of higher trophic levels in the Arctic Ocean varies with region (Atlantic side vs. Pacific side), and with the sea-ice cover.  Reduction of the area of Arctic sea ice reduces the planet's average albedo, possibly resulting in global warming in a positive feedback mechanism. The Arctic Ocean is at the top of the Earth, north of Asia, Europe, and North America.  The coastline is 45,390 km (28,200 mi) long. , Sea ice, and the cold conditions it sustains, serves to stabilize methane deposits on and near the shoreline, preventing the clathrate breaking down and outgassing methane into the atmosphere, causing further warming. Maximum depth: 10,882 meters. This is the first time REV Ocean has opened the vessel and science equipment for public access. It is a product of Atlantic water that enters through canyons and is subjected to intense mixing on the Siberian Shelf. … Inactive Arctic glacier (left) and inactive Arctic glacier face (right). It occupies the most northern region of Earth. The deepest point of this trench plunges to 8,376 meters (27,480 feet) below the surface of the ocean. The ocean's area is about 14.056 million km2, which is the smallest of the world's 5 oceans, and it has 45,389 kilometres (28,203 miles) of coastline. According to Arctic Report Card, basin-wide sea surface temperatures across the Arctic Ocean have been warming by 0.5 degrees Fahrenheit (0.3 degrees Celsius) per decade. Much of the Arctic ice pack is also covered in snow for about 10 months of the year. ORIGIN. The fifth deepest ocean, the Arctic Ocean has an average depth of 3.407 feet (1,038 meters). In just 15 years, the Arctic Ocean may be ice-free in summer, study says. The supposition that the depths of the sea generally correspond to the heights of the land is thus veri fied; not that there is any necessary connection between the … , Paleo-Eskimo groups included the Pre-Dorset (c. 3200–850 BC); the Saqqaq culture of Greenland (2500–800 BC); the Independence I and Independence II cultures of northeastern Canada and Greenland (c. 2400–1800 BC and c. 800–1 BC); the Groswater of Labrador and Nunavik, and the Dorset culture (500 BC to AD 1500), which spread across Arctic North America. The Arctic Ocean is unique in that nearly one-third of its total area is underlain by continental shelf, which is asymmetrically distributed around its circumference. The agreement calls for those nations to refrain from fishing there until there is better scientific knowledge about the marine resources and until a regulatory system is in place to protect those resources. Endangered marine species in the Arctic Ocean include walruses and whales. It is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait and to the Atlantic Ocean through the Greenland Sea and Labrador Sea. The depth of the Arctic Ocean averages 4,362 feet. The temperature of the surface of the Arctic Ocean is fairly constant, near the freezing point of seawater. Ice covers most of the Arctic Ocean. The Arctic Ocean is unique in that nearly one-third of its total area is underlain by continental shelf, which is asymmetrically distributed around its circumference. The mean extent of the Arctic sea ice has been continuously decreasing in the last decades, declining at a rate of currently 12.85% per decade since 1980 from the average winter value of 15,600,000 km2 (6,023,200 sq mi). In the summer, the SLP contrast is smaller, producing weaker winds. The Arctic Ocean has a volume of 18,750,000 cubic kilometers (4,500,000 cubic miles). Geography.  Complementing the water from the canyons, some Pacific water that does not sink to the shelf region after passing through the Bering Strait also contributes to this water mass. The average depth of the Arctic Ocean is 1,038 metres (3,406 feet). The average depth of the Arctic Ocean is 1,038 m (3,406 ft). Icebergs pose a hazard to ships, of which the Titanic is one of the most famous. Geographical activities created deep trenches beneath the ocean that thousands of feet in depth which could part of the deepest point. Release of version 4 of the IBCAO.  As it is entrained, it cools and acts a heat shield for the surface layer. It covers majority of Arctic and is considered sometimes the sea of Atlantic. In Norway, Kirkenes (69°43′37″N 030°02′44″E / 69.72694°N 30.04556°E / 69.72694; 30.04556 (Kirkenes)) and Vardø (70°22′14″N 031°06′27″E / 70.37056°N 31.10750°E / 70.37056; 31.10750 (Vardø)) are ports on the mainland. 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